Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that causes inflammation and ulceration of inner lining of the colon, and rectum. The inflammation usually begins in the rectum, and sigmoid colon and spread upward to the entire colon. Ulcerative colitis rarely affects the small intestine. It occurs at the rate of approximately five cases per 100000 people.

"Ulcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis is a form of colitis, a disease of the colon (the largest portion of the large intestine), that includes characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is usually constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. IBD is often confused with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Ulcerative colitis shares much in common with Crohn's disease, another form of IBD, but Crohn's disease can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract while ulcerative colitis only attacks the large intestine, and while ulcerative colitis can be cured by performing a total colectomy (i.e., removing the entire large intestine), surgery for Crohn's disease involves removing the damaged parts of the intestine and reconnecting the healthy parts, which does not cure Crohn's, as it can recur after surgery, mostly at the site of the intestinal anastomosis (connection) or in other areas. Ulcerative colitis is an intermittent disease, with periods of exacerbated symptoms, and periods that are relatively symptom-free. Although the symptoms of ulcerative colitis can sometimes diminish on their own, the disease usually requires treatment to go into remission. Ulcerative colitis has an incidence of 1 to 20 cases per 100,000 individuals per year, and a prevalence of 8 to 246 per 100,000 individuals.

The disease is more prevalent in northern countries of the world, as well as in northern areas of individual countries or other regions. Rates tend to be higher in more affluent countries, which may indicate the increased prevalence is due to increased rates of diagnosis. It may also indicate that an industrial or Western diet and lifestyle increases the prevalence of this disease, including symptoms which may or may not be related to ulcerative colitis. Although UC has no known cause, there is a presumed genetic component to susceptibility. The disease may be triggered in a susceptible person by environmental factors. Although dietary modification may reduce the discomfort of a person with the disease, ulcerative colitis is not thought to be caused by dietary factors. Ulcerative colitis, like its sister condition Crohn's disease, is treated as an autoimmune disease. Treatment is with anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppression, and biological therapy targeting specific components of the immune response. Colectomy (partial or total removal of the large bowel through surgery) is occasionally necessary if the disease is severe, does not respond to treatment, or if significant complications develop. A total proctocolectomy (removal of the entirety of the large bowel and rectum) can cure ulcerative colitis (extraintestinal symptoms will remain), but it may be associated with complications."

The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known. Autoimmune factor food allergies, collagen disorders, genetic factors, infection and psychogenesis, have all been suggested.]

In ulcerative colitis, inflammation is trigger by some unknown elements. Hyperemia and swelling occurs as part of the vascular response. The swollen engorged bowel is fragile, and is therefore inclined to ulcerate, thus creating a break in the mucosal barrier. Digestive enzymes and intestinal bacteria act upon this exposed tissue, causing furthered irritation, inflammation, ulceration and bleeding.

All the factors that imbalance the pitta, bio-energy are also responsible for developing ulcerative colitis. These include indulgence in too many arguments, eating while watching TV. Or walking watching too many violent movies, excessive heat or exposure to sun, excessive alcohol and smoking, excessive mental activity, skipping meals, spicy sour or stale and infected foods act. In pitta constitution, person, pitta gets aggravated very quickly with the above factors and develop diarrhea followed by bloody diarrhea.

Ulcerative colitis is completely curable in ayurveda. There are many herbs and herbomineral medicines, which heal the ulcers of the colitis and give complete relief from the disease. In case of bleeding ulcerative colitis, it is also curable. It takes 3-6 months for complete cure of the disease.